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A voice impairment is a term used to describe an abnormal production and or an absence of voice. Vocal quality, pitch, loudness, resonance, and duration may be affected. The condition can present itself as a vocal cord dysfunction, a pathology, whereby which full or partial closure of the folds is negatively impacted. Vocal cord dysfunction, along with the associated disorders found in this clustered category, require the multi-disciplinary integration of a laryngologist.
Swallowing disorders, also known as dysphagia, is a term used to describe the difficulty an individual has at the oral, physiological and esophageal stages of deglutition. The condition is often attributed to a structural or functional weakness. Yet at times is an indirect result of cognitive deficits. Whereas, a feeding disorder is a general term used to describe a child’s difficulty accepting an age-appropriate diet.
Stuttering is a term used to describe an interruption in the flow of speech. Primary characteristics include one or more of the following: (a) audible or silent blocking; (b) sound and syllable repetitions; (c) sound prolongations; (d) interjections; (e) broken words; (f) circumlocutions or (g) words produced with an excess of tension. Secondary characteristics include the habitual use of speech musculature or other body parts (e.g., eye blinking) thought to be initiated to release, conceal or modify the dysfluency.
Social pragmatic deficits is a term used to describe an individual’s inability to understand, and as a result, adhere to the rules governing the use of language in communal contexts. In children, this can be seen as difficulty making comments, requesting objects or actions, informing, taking turns and sustaining proper posture and attention, during discourse.
A resonance disorder is a term used to describe speech sound deficits characterized by physiological anomalies, such as hyper and hyponasality and malformed or malfunctioning palates.
A reading delay is a term used to describe a condition, whereby which an individual has difficulty with written print. When prolonged, the delay is deemed a disorder. The conditions of which can include: Developmental Dyslexia, Alexia (acquired dyslexia), and Hyperlexia (word-reading ability well above normal for age and IQ).
Phonological processes is a term used to describe the techniques applied by children, when attempting to produce adult language. Deficits occur, when these developmental processes, which are expected to fade by a given age, are developmentally prolonged. They include:
Deletion of Final Consonants occurs when the speaker deletes the final consonant from a word e.g. cat = ca;
Syllable Reduction is the deletion of a syllable from a word e.g. banana = bana;
Stopping is the replacement of fricatives with a stop consonant, e.g. soup = dup;
Cluster Simplification occurs when one or more consonants is deleted from a sequence of consonants, e.g. blue = bu;
Liquid Simplification is the substitution of /w/ or /j/ for /l/ and /r/, e.g. rock = wok;
Velar Fronting is the substitution of /t/ and /d/ for /k/ and /g/, e.g. cat = tat;
Palatal Fronting is the substitution of palatal consonants with nonpalatal consonants, e.g. shovel = sovel;
Deaffrication is the deletion of the stop feature of an affricate, e.g. matches = mashes;
Initial Voicing is the inappropriate voicing of initial voiceless consonants, e.g. pen = ben;
Final Devoicing is the substitution of a voiceless consonant for the final voiced consonant, e.g. bed = bet.
An orofacial myofunctional disorder is a term used to describe impairments of the muscles and functions of the face and mouth. Orofacial myofunctional disorders may affect, either directly and or indirectly, facial skeletal growth, chewing, swallowing, speech, occlusion, temporomandibular joint movement, oral hygiene, stability of orthodontic treatment, facial esthetics, and more.
A neurological impairment is a term used to describe a limited and or impaired capacity of the nervous system. The difficulties exhibited include one or more of the following domains: the use of memory, the control and use of cognitive functioning, sensory and motor skills, speech, language, organizational skills, information processing, affect, social skills, or basic life functions.
A language disorder is a term used to describe an impairment of comprehension and or the oral application of written, symbolled systems. This disorder may involve (1) the form of language (phonology, morphology, syntax), (2) the content of language (semantics), and or (3) the function of language in communication (pragmatics).
Dyslexia is a term used to describe a cluster of symptoms that result in individuals having difficulty with reading. Both oral and written language, such as writing and annunciation of print, may be affected.
Dysarthria is a term used to describe a collection of motor speech disorders, whose impairment originates in the central or peripheral nervous system. As a result, the domains of respiration, articulation, phonation, resonation, and prosody may all be affected.
Cluttering is a term used to describe a speech and language processing disorder, which results in rapid, dysrhythmic, sporadic, unorganized and frequently unintelligible speech. Though accelerated speech may not always be present, an impairment in formulating language most commonly is.
Childhood apraxia of speech is a term used to describe an impaired ability to generate the motor programming for speech movements, as a direct result from a central nervous system lesion. The child in this instance has the ability to produce sounds, yet it is inconsistent and at times random. Normatively, substitutions and omissions are the most common errors. Whereas, speech rate and rhythm may be affected. Identification is typically made between the ages of three and five, although it can be later.
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a term used to describe a developmental disorder that affects communication and behavior. The condition encompasses a wide range of symptoms characterized by challenges with social skills, repetitive behaviors, speech and nonverbal communication, as well as, unique strengths and differences.
An auditory processing disorder, also known as a Central Auditory Processing Disorder (CAPD), is a term used to describe an impaired ability to recognize and interpret sounds. It involves difficulty with the perceptual processing of auditory information in the central nervous system, and as a result impacts the assignment of meaning.
An articulation impairment is a term used to describe a speech disorder that affects the phonetic level, specifically an individual’s ability to say particular sounds. Identification of this disorder is generally made between the ages of 5 and 8. Though, the impact on communication will depend on the type, severity, and number of errors. Notably, the causes vary and may be linked to transient hearing loss due to otitis media (frequent ear infections) or allergies; structural or functional problems with the lips, teeth, tongue, or hard palate; or a medical condition such as cleft palate or cerebral palsy.
Accent reduction, also known as accent modification, is a term that refers to a systematic approach for learning or adopting the speech sound system of a non-native language, which includes its phonology and melodic intonation.